how did the ottoman empire maintain power
How did the Ottoman Empire, as led by Suleiman the Magnificent, gain, consolidate, and maintain power? A fierce conservative disciplinarian, he successfully reasserted the central authority and the empire's military impetus. It lost its Balkan territories except East Thrace and the historic Ottoman capital city of Adrianople during the war. The previous conquests were consolidated, and many of the political, economic, and social problems caused by Mehmeds internal policies were resolved, leaving a firm foundation for the conquests of the 16th-century sultans. Predict At the height of its power, the Ottoman Empire under Suleiman (1520-1566) controlled a large territory inEurope, Africa, and Asia. Answer: The Seljuk Empire was a medieval Turkic empire that controlled a large territory in Western Asia and Eastern Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. Venice had been encouraging revolts against the sultan in the Morea (Peloponnese) and in Dalmatia and Albania, which it had ceded to the Ottomans in 1479. Whereas Mehmed II used the conquest of Constantinople to destroy the major Turkish notable families and build up the power of the devirme, Murad sought only to establish a balance of power and function between the two groups so that he could use and control both for the benefit of the empire. It was one of the first "modern" wars, as it introduced new technologies to warfare, such as the first tactical use of railways and the telegraph. 9.6 SQ 3 What was the ethnic and religious composition of the Ottoman Empire? He distributed most of his conquests to members of the kapkulu force, occasionally as timars but more often as tax farms (iltizms), so that the treasury could obtain the money it needed to maintain the Janissary army entirely on a salaried basis. 1 / 51. In Turkey, Osman was known as "the last Ottoman".. With the demise of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum during 12th to 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent states, the so-called Anatolian Beyliks. Harem. It is based on numerous eyewitness accounts. . What was the ethnic and religious composition of the Ottoman Empire? ~11 days During the postclassical era, the growth CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING:The dominant belief systems and the ethnic and religious compositions of the Ottoman Empire and the Ming Dynasty affected their social, political, and economic structures and organizations. Egypt and Sudan remained as Ottoman provinces de jure until 1914, when the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers of World War I. When forced to reconvene it, he abolished the representative body instead. Through these resources, students willmap the extent of the Ming Dynasty, examine the methods used by the Ming to gain, consolidate, and maintain power, and examine the travels of Zheng He andMing interactions with European traders and Christian missionaries. Totten, Samuel, Paul Robert Bartrop, Steven L. Jacobs (eds. The Turkish language and Muslim traditions were emphasized. That lasted until defeat in the Russo-Turkish War of 18771878. The Young Turk government had signed a secret treaty with Germany and established the Ottoman-German Alliance in August 1914, aimed against the common Russian enemy but aligning the Empire with the German side. Unit Synthesis Task: Closer: Contextualize and Connect Cause and Effect, Unit Synthesis Task: Closer: Enduring Issues and Questions. Stubborn resistance by the Maltese led to the lifting of the siege in September.  According to his dream the tree, which was Osman's Empire, issued four rivers from its roots, the Tigris, the Euphrates, the Nile and the Danube.  Armenian militants seized the Ottoman Bank headquarters in Istanbul in 1896 to bring European attention to the massacres, but they failed to gain any help. Persons of Muslim and non-Muslim origin could achieve that status as long as they accepted the limitations involved: absolute obedience to their master and the devotion of their lives, properties, and families to his service. SQ 2 What was the historical context for the founding of the Ottoman Empire? As an example, in the 1853 Crimean War, the Ottomans united with Britain, France and the Kingdom of Sardinia against Russia.  Through forced marches and gang skirmishes, the Armenians living in eastern Anatolia were uprooted from their ancestral homelands and sent southwards to the Ottoman provinces in Syria and Mesopotamia. KEY IDEA:THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE AND THE MING DYNASTY PRE-1600: Islam, Neo-Confucianism, and Christianity each influenced the development of regions and shaped key centers of power in the world between 1368 and 1683. Bayezid then turned to the east, where previous conquests as far as the Euphrates River had brought the Ottomans up to the Mamluk empire. What were the society and culture like in the Ottoman Empire? Society in the Ottoman Empire was dominated by Islam, although non-Muslims were also present and constituted a great deal of the imperial population. Due to Turkish traditions of gender semi-equality, women had comparatively more rights than those of other Muslim societies. 9.6 SQ 12 Who was Zheng He? Review sheets for ALL of the topics in the Global I curriculum and concept mapping activities to organize that information. had as an occupation. WebThe transformation of that city into the Ottoman capital of Istanbul marked an important new stage in Ottoman history. However, Russian expansion presented a large and growing threat. A highly ambitious plan to counter this conceived by Sokollu Mehmed Pasha, Grand Vizier under Selim II, in the shape of a Don-Volga canal (begun June 1569), combined with an attack on Astrakhan, failed, the canal being abandoned with the onset of winter. Where did the Ming Dynasty rule? , On 23 September 2009, Osman died at the age of 97 in Istanbul, and with his death the last of the line born under the Ottoman Empire was extinguished. Ottoman Empire Pre-1600: SQ 4 What was the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople? Finally, the Ottoman Empire was weakened The Ottomans established the principle of indivisibility of rule, with all members of the ruling class subjected to the absolute will of the sultan. In 1974, descendants of the dynasty were granted the right to acquire Turkish citizenship by the Grand National Assembly, and were notified that they could apply. The Empire prospered under the rule of a line of committed and effective Sultans. Later, in the 18th century, centralized authority within the Ottoman Empire gave way to varying degrees of provincial autonomy enjoyed by local governors and leaders. Ming Dynasty Pre-1600: SQ 11. Because those advances conflicted with the ambitions of Poland, in 148384 war ensued, until the diversion of Poland by the threat of Muscovy under Ivan III the Great left that front quiet also after 1484. As Sultan Mehmed II conquered Constantinople (today named Istanbul) in 1453, transforming it into the new Ottoman capital, the state grew into a mighty empire, expanding deep into Europe, northern Africa and the Middle East. Particularly important was the establishment of the avriz- divaniye (war chest) tax, which provided for the extraordinary expenditures of war without special confiscations or heavy levies. The Ottoman Empire entered World War I after the Goeben and Breslau incident, in which it gave safe harbour to two German ships that were fleeing British ships. A specific year can be provided, albeit it is also relative; marking their change in 1553. CONTENT SPECIFICATION:Students will identify and explain the importance of at least two key resources and/or products and/or luxury items vital to exchanges along the Indian Ocean complex, Mediterranean Sea complex, Silk Roads, and Trans-Saharan routes. The Sultanate of women (15331656) was a period in which the political influence of the Imperial Harem was dominant, as the mothers of young sultans exercised power on behalf of their sons. In Europe he rounded off the empire south of the Danube and Sava rivers by taking Herzegovina (1483), leaving only Belgrade outside Ottoman control. It still controlled 28 million people, of whom 17 million were in modern-day Turkey, 3 million in Syria, Lebanon and Palestine, and 2.5 million in Iraq. Verb. Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece made gains, but far less than they thought they deserved. In order to consolidate this claim, he would launch a campaign to conquer Rome, the western capital of the former Roman Empire. 1300s-1700s.  By 1300, a weakened Byzantine Empire had lost most of its Anatolian provinces to these Turkish principalities. SQ 3. One of the beyliks was led by Osman I (d. 1323/4), from which the name Ottoman is derived, son of Erturul, around Eskiehir in western Anatolia. The Ottomans had one thing most imperial people do not. They had the foresight to know they were not administrators. The Ottoman Turks were formida France and the Ottoman Empire, united by mutual opposition to Habsburg rule in both Southern and Central Europe, became strong allies during this period. Ming Dynasty Pre-1600: SQ 9. Harun Osmanolu, the 3rd generation grandson of Abdul Hamid II, is the eldest living member of the former ruling dynasty. Throughout the rest of the 1500s and into the 1600s and 1700s, the Ottoman Empire began a considerable decline in power after several military defeats. This continued under his son and successor Kprl Fazl Ahmed (Grand Vizier 16611676).  Muslims had been the majority in some parts of the Ottoman Empire such as the Crimea, the Balkans and the Caucasus as well as a plurality in southern Russia and also in some parts of Romania. From then on, all important ministers, military officers, judges, governors, timar holders, tax farmers, Janissaries, sipahis, and the like were made members of that class and attached to the will and service of the sultan. After gaining some amount of autonomy during the early 1800s, Egypt had entered into a period of political turmoil by the 1880s. CONTENT SPECIFICATION:Students will identify trade networks involved in the exchange of enslaved people and explore the nature of slavery during this time period.  Additionally, the tree shaded four mountain ranges, the Caucasus, the Taurus, the Atlas and the Balkan ranges. His rule represented one of the most orderly periods of Ottoman history. On 15 September 1656 the octogenarian Kprl Mehmed Pasha accepted the seals of office having received guarantees from the Valide Turhan Hatice of unprecedented authority and freedom from interference. After you fill out the form, you will receive notification that you have been added to a Google Group called "New Visions Social Studies Assessments Access." SQ 12. Who was Zheng He? Britain and France successfully defended the Ottoman Empire against Russia.. 9.6 SQ 8. The Ottoman Empire took its first foreign loans on 4 August 1854, shortly after the beginning of the Crimean War. CONTENT SPECIFICATION:Students will analyze how the ethnic and religious compositions of the Ottoman Empire and the Ming Dynasty were reflected in their political and societal organizations. It established the freedom of belief and equality of all citizens before the law. elite soldiers. The remaining CUP members, who now took a more dominantly nationalist tone in the face of the enmity of the Balkan Wars, dueled Freedom and Accord in a series of power reversals, which ultimately led to the CUP (specifically its leadership, the "Three Pashas") seizing power from the Freedom and Accord in the 1913 Ottoman coup d'tat and establishing total dominance over Ottoman politics until the end of World War I. Profiting from the civil strife, Austria-Hungary officially annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908, but pulled its troops out of the Sanjak of Novi Pazar, another contested region between the Austrians and Ottomans, to avoid a war. The new independent Grand National Assembly of Turkey (GNA) was internationally recognized with the Treaty of Lausanne on 24 July 1923. Bayezid II completed the effort begun by Mehmed II to replace the vassals with direct Ottoman administration throughout the empire. The signs and symptoms of dissociative identity disorder (DID) vary depending on the individual. On the eve of World War II, the geographical position and the geopolitical weight of Turkey, the major historical heir to the Ottoman Empire, gave weight to the issues as propaganda.  Crimean Tatar refugees in the late 19th century played an especially notable role in seeking to modernise Turkish education.. What impact did his travels have on China and other regions? New railways were built during this period, including the first in the Ottoman Empire. 9.6 SQ 4 What was the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople? Explore the power of the Ottoman Empire's army and its mighty archers, The Ottoman state to 1481: the age of expansion, Origins and expansion of the Ottoman state, c. 13001402, Restoration of the Ottoman Empire, 140281, Ottoman institutions in the 14th and 15th centuries, Domination of southeastern Europe and the Middle East, Classical Ottoman society and administration, The decline of the Ottoman Empire, 15661807, Military defeats and the emergence of the Eastern Question, 16831792, Imperial decline in the 18th and early 19th centuries, Allied war aims and the proposed peace settlement.  In the latter part of this period there were educational and technological reforms, including the establishment of higher education institutions such as the Istanbul Technical University. On 10 November 1444, Murad II defeated the Hungarian, Polish and Wallachian armies under Wadysaw III of Poland (also King of Hungary) and Jnos Hunyadi at the Battle of Varna, which was the final battle of the Crusade of Varna. Finally, at the start of the 16th century, a general Anatolian uprising forced Bayezid into a major expedition (150203) that pushed the Safavids and many of their Turkmen followers into Iran. Please highlight the citations you make by using colored text, Or underline the citations. , However, the 17th century was not an era of stagnation and decline, but a key period in which the Ottoman state and its structures began to adapt to new pressures and new realities, internal and external. By the late 18th century, a number of defeats in several wars with Russia led some people in the Ottoman Empire to conclude that the reforms of Peter the Great had given the Russians an edge, and the Ottomans would have to keep up with Western technology in order to avoid further defeats..  Because of bad relations between the latter Byzantine Empire and the states of western Europe as epitomized by Loukas Notaras's famous remark "Better the Sultan's turban than the Cardinal's Hat", the majority of the Orthodox population accepted Ottoman rule as preferable to Venetian rule.. What do the Turkish Letters (1589) reveal about how outsiders viewed the Ottomans? Where did the Ming Dynasty rule? CONTENT SPECIFICATION:Students will identify the location of the transregional trade networks noting regional connections between the Indian Ocean complex, Mediterranean Sea complex, Silk Roads, and Trans-Saharan routes. The United States never declared war against the Ottoman Empire. How did the Ming Dynasty interact with European traders and Christian missionaries? Our units are developed through a backwards design process in which we start with the summative assessments and then create resources and formative assessments based on the content and skills students will need to be successful (SeeUnderstanding by Designby Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe).  In 1911, of the 654 wholesale companies in Istanbul, 528 were owned by ethnic Greeks.. The Ottoman Empire was able to maintain power because it had a strong military and religious infrastructure. The empire reached its maximum territorial extent in 1683, on the eve of the Battle of Vienna. Power in the Ottoman Empire revolved around the administration of the rights to land, which gave space for local authority to develop local crops. L. S. Stavrianos, The Balkans since 1453 (London: Hurst and Co., 2000), pp. The Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453 by Mehmed II cemented the status of the Empire as the preeminent power in southeastern Europe and the eastern Mediterranean. There were several important Ottoman victories in the early years of the war, such as the Battle of Gallipoli and the Siege of Kut, but there were setbacks as well, such as the disastrous Caucasus Campaign against the Russians. . What was the ethnic and religious composition of the Ottoman Empire?  In turn, the higher educational levels of the Christians allowed them to play a large role in the economy. Another institution was the newly formed Armenian National Assembly. During the reign of Suleiman, Transylvania, Wallachia and, intermittently, Moldavia, became tributary principalities of the Ottoman Empire. What years did the Ottomans rule? These efforts, however, were hampered by reactionary movements, partly from the religious leadership, but primarily from the Janissary corps, who had become anarchic and ineffectual. 9.6 SQ 1 Where was the Ottoman Empire? That new regular army developed the techniques of battle and siege that were used to achieve most of the 14th-century Ottoman conquests, but, because it was commanded by members of the Turkish notable class, it became the major vehicle for their rise to predominance over the sultans, whose direct military supporters were limited to the vassal contingents. | 1 Map of Ottoman Upon making Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) the new capital of the Ottoman Empire in 1453, Mehmed II assumed the title of Kayser-i Rm (literally Caesar Romanus, i.e. Under the shah Isml I (ruled 150124), the Safavids sent missionaries throughout Anatolia, spreading a message of religious heresy and political revolt not only among the tribal peoples but also to cultivators and some urban elements, who began to see in that movement the answers to their own problems. Bayezid never was able to use that situation to make new conquests in Europe, because the rise of revolts in eastern Anatolia occupied much of his attention during the last years of his reign. The Battle of Nicopolis in 1396, widely regarded as the last large-scale crusade of the Middle Ages, failed to stop the advance of the victorious Ottoman Turks. When the Ottoman Empire was restored under Sultan Mehmed I, the Turkish notables, in order to deprive the sultan of the only military force he could use to resist their control, required him to abandon the kapkulu, justifying the action on the basis of the Islamic tradition that Muslims could not be kept in slavery. Murad based the new force on his right to a fifth of the war booty, which he interpreted to include captives taken in battle. The empire reached its apex under Suleiman the Magnificent in the 16th century, when it stretched from the Persian Gulf in the east to Algeria in the west, and from Yemen in the south to Hungary and parts of Ukraine in the north. You will need to provide your official school email address AND a Google email address. Translated from the German by Mrs Alexander Kerr (London: John Murray, 1847). The Ottomans maintained power over their empire through religious beliefs, a system to accommodate non-Muslim citizens, firm responses to rebellious What was the social structure of the Ottoman Empire? The Treaty of Belgrade signed on 18 September 1739, ended this war and resulted in Ottoman recovery of Belgrade and other territories from Austria, but the loss of the port of Azov to the Russians.  The Empire had reached the end of its ability to effectively conduct an assertive, expansionist policy against its European rivals and it was to be forced from this point to adopt an essentially defensive strategy within this theatre. 9.6 SQ 7 What are the strengths and limitations of the Turkish Letters as a reliable source for understanding how outsiders viewed the Ottoman Empire? Douglas Arthur Howard: "The History of Turkey", page 71. 1 / 51. While this era was not without some successes, the ability of the Ottoman state to have any effect on ethnic uprisings was seriously called into question. In the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over the Eastern Mediterranean and the Balkans. What was the World War 1 mandate system? Bayezid was installed on the throne by the Janissaries because of their military domination of the capital, while his more militant brother Cem fled to Anatolia, where he led a revolt initially supported by the Turkish notables. The first Ottoman army had been composed entirely of Turkmen nomads, who had remained largely under the command of the religious orders that had converted most of them to Islam. This was not wholly unprecedented; Hrrem Sultan, who established herself in the early 1530s as the successor of Nurbanu, the first valide sultan, was described by the Venetian baylo Andrea Giritti as "a woman of the utmost goodness, courage and wisdom" even though she "thwarted some while rewarding others". The first item on the agenda of the Tehran conference was the issue of Turkey's participation in World War II by the end of 1943.. The overriding military need for defence on the western and eastern frontiers of the Empire eventually made effective long-term engagement on a global scale impossible. Throughout its more than 600 years of existence, the Ottoman Empire has left a profound legacy in the Middle East and Southeast Europe, as can be seen in the customs, culture, and cuisine of the various countries that were once part of its realm. The Caliphate was constitutionally abolished several months later, on 3 March 1924. Directions: Examine the map and make a prediction below. Explain how the land-based empires of the 1450-1750 time period developed (what allowed them to obtain and maintain power): Click the card to flip . A rebellion that originated in Moldavia as a diversion was followed by the main revolution in the Peloponnese, which, along with the northern part of the Gulf of Corinth, became the first parts of the Ottoman empire to achieve independence (in 1829). The sultanate was officially abolished by the Government of the Turkish Grand National Assembly in Ankara on 1 November 1922 following the Turkish War of Independence. Money, money, money (always sunny, in a rich mans world) I was at a wedding this summer when I asked a friend of mine, who is a history professor  Russia was made the guarantor of their right to Christian worship.  With the Empire's population reaching 30,000,000 people by 1600, shortage of land placed further pressure on the government. The Ottomans maintained power in the usual ways - an army which usually ensured the continuation of law and order; a bureaucracy which meant that m The Turkmen nomads resisted the efforts of the Ottomans to expand their administrative control to all parts of the empire. For more details, please see this page. How interconnected was it to other regions? CONTENT SPECIFICATION:Students will examine the travels of Zheng He, Ibn Battuta, and Marco Polo and the influence of their journeys. Only late in the 14th century did Murad I and Bayezid I attempt to build up their own personal power by building a military slave force for the sultan under the name kapkulu. Cambridge University Press, 2006. The form of government does not quite have an equivalent in the Western world nor english. The most accurate you could describe it as would be an I As soon as Murad II came to power, however, he resumed earlier efforts to make the sultanate more independent, building up the strength of the Janissaries and their associates and playing them off against the notables.  A month prior to the siege of Nice, France supported the Ottomans with an artillery unit during the Ottoman conquest of Esztergom in 1543. From the total Tatar population of 300,000 in the Tauride Province, about 200,000 Crimean Tatars moved to the Ottoman Empire in continuing waves of emigration. Never drop your bork during battle! DID individuals report very high rates of adult rape, intimate partner violence, and other forms of exploitation, such as being a victim of trafficking. Western European states began to avoid the Ottoman trade monopoly by establishing their own maritime routes to Asia through new discoveries at sea. European efforts to use him as the spearhead of a new Crusade to regain Istanbul were unsuccessful. In discussions with a Venetian minister, the Ottoman Grand Vizier commented: "In capturing Cyprus from you, we have cut off one of your arms; in defeating our fleet you have merely shaved off our beard". By contrast, the Habsburg frontier had settled into a reasonably permanent border, marked only by relatively minor battles concentrating on the possession of individual fortresses. Those revenue holdings were formalized as mukaas, held by tribal leaders and ghazi commanders who used their revenues to feed, supply, and arm their followers. Selim's successor, Suleiman the Magnificent (15201566), further expanded upon Selim's conquests. They settled particularly in Istanbul, Salonika (present-day Thessalonki, Greece), and Edirne, where they joined their coreligionists in a golden age of Ottoman Jewry that lasted well into the 17th century, when Ottoman decline and the rising power of European diplomats and merchants enabled them to promote the interests of the sultans Christian subjects at the expense of Muslims and Jews alike. German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, who led the Congress, undertook to adjust boundaries to minimise the risks of major war, while recognising the reduced power of the Ottomans, and balance the distinct interests of the great powers. A burgeoning national consciousness, together with a growing sense of ethnic nationalism, made nationalistic thought one of the most significant Western ideas imported to the Ottoman Empire. This had serious negative consequences at all levels of Ottoman society. Ming Dynasty Pre-1600: SQ 13. , The war caused an exodus of the Crimean Tatars. The introduction of increased cultural rights, civil liberties and a parliamentary system during the Tanzimat proved too late to reverse the nationalistic and secessionist trends that had already been set in motion since the early 19th century. After this Ottoman expansion, a competition started between the Portuguese Empire and the Ottoman Empire to become the dominant power in the region. In addition, in order to man the new force, Murad developed the devirme system of recruiting the best Christian youths from southeastern Europe. It was that type of mukaa that developed into the Ottoman form of fief, the timar, which was the basis of Ottoman military and administrative organization as the European portions of the empire were conquered from the vassals in the 15th century and placed under direct Ottoman administration.  The next year, the invasion was repeated but repelled at the Battle of Molodi.  In 1876 the first international mailing network between Istanbul and the lands beyond the vast Ottoman Empire was established. Though Bayezid preferred to maintain peacein order to have the time and resources to concentrate on internal developmenthe was forced into a number of campaigns by the exigencies of the period and the demands of his more militant devirme followers. What do the Turkish Letters (1589) reveal about how outsiders viewed the Ottomans? The Serbian revolution (18041815) marked the beginning of an era of national awakening in the Balkans during the Eastern Question. Cambridge University Press, 2012. Many Ottoman Turks questioned whether the policies of the state were to blame: some felt that the sources of ethnic conflict were external, and unrelated to issues of governance. All those objectives, except control of Cyprus, were achieved in the war with Venice that followed in 14991503.  The Kprl Vizierate saw renewed military success with authority restored in Transylvania, the conquest of Crete completed in 1669 and expansion into Polish southern Ukraine, with the strongholds of Khotyn and Kamianets-Podilskyi and the territory of Podolia ceding to Ottoman control in 1676..  In 1821 the First Hellenic Republic became the first Balkan country to achieve its independence from the Ottoman Empire. CONTENT SPECIFICATION:Students will map the extent of the Muslim, Neo-Confucian, and Christian realms and compare the relative size and power of these realms ca. and more. Closer: Contextualize and Connect Cause and Effect, Learn about New Visions Curricula The unsuccessful siege (the Turks managed to capture the Isle of Gozo together with Fort Saint Elmo on the main island of Malta, but failed elsewhere and retreated) was the second and last defeat experienced by Suleiman the Magnificent after the likewise inconclusive first Ottoman siege of Vienna in 1529. Even though there are many DID symptoms and signs, it is For the first time the central government regularly operated under a balanced budget. To replace the nomads, Orhan organized a separate standing army of hired mercenaries paid by salary rather than booty or by timar estates. During this period, the empire faced challenges in defending itself against foreign invasion and occupation. KEY IDEA:RISE OF TRANSREGIONAL TRADE NETWORKS: During the classical and postclassical eras, transregional trade networks emerged and/or expanded. After capturing Belgrade in 1521, Suleiman conquered the southern and central parts of the Kingdom of Hungary (the western, northern and northeastern parts remained independent). There the old conflict resumed between the autonomous, uncivilized nomads and the stable, settled Middle Eastern civilization of the Ottomans. But the idea of Ottomanism proved influential. Ottoman military reform efforts begin with Selim III (17891807) who made the first major attempts to modernize the army along European lines. By 1817, when the revolution ended, Serbia was raised to the status of self-governing monarchy under nominal Ottoman suzerainty. It effectively disavowed Russia's victory. This course map provides the scope and sequence and structure of units in the New Visions Global I History Curriculum. The parliament survived for only two years before the sultan suspended it.